The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is located in Hamadan, Iran. The tomb is the traditional location of the graves of Mordechai and Esther, two cousins who played a significant role in the Book of Esther (also known as the Megillah). The saga of Mordechai and Esther form the basis for the Jewish celebration of Purim; hence, the tomb has historical importance to Iranian Jews and the wider Jewish community.
Mordechai and Esther lived during the rule of Ahasuerus, a Persian king who is also identified as Artaxerxes (possibly Artaxerxes II, who lived from 435 or 445 to 358 BCE).
It is not known if the tomb of Mordechai and Esther is the actual site where they were buried. According to Stuart C. Brown, the site is more probably the mausoleum of Shushandukht, the Jewish consort of the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I (399–420 A.D.).
A parallel tradition holds that their bodies were brought to Baram, a site now in Israel, for burial. In any case, the site in Hamadan has been revered for at least eight centuries. Iranian Jews traditionally travel there to read the Megillah each Purim.
In 1891, the tomb was described as consisting of an outer and inner chamber surmounted by a dome about 50 feet (15 m) high. The dome had been covered with blue tiles, but most of them had fallen away. A few tombs of worthy Jewish individuals were located within the outer chamber.
The archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld described the place as a simple structure which has been restored several times. The oldest part was the underground tomb-chamber with a small opening in the top of its vault, and two wooden cenotaphs, one of which is of the Mongol period.